Research shows evidence that incarceration has negative psychological effects on people in prison. These include: A dependence on institutional structure and contingencies. Hypervigilance, interpersonal distrust, and suspicion. Emotional over-control, alienation, and psychological distancing. Social withdrawal and isolation. Incorporation of exploitative norms of prison culture. Diminished sense of self-worth and personal value. And post-traumatic stress reactions to the pains of imprisonment (Haney, 2001). The deprived social environment of prison can potentially impede one’s social capacity to navigate various social obligations post-incarceration.